ఋతు చక్రం 1 వ భాగము:  శరీర ధర్మ శాస్త్రము

సంతానోత్పత్తి వ్యవస్థలో భాగంగా పరిగణించబడే అవయవాలలో నెలనెల జరిగే జీవ మార్పులు ఋతు చక్రం లో భాగం. ఇది అండాశయాలు (ovaries), గర్భాశయం (uterus), మరియు యోని (vagina) వంటి స్త్రీ పునరుత్పత్తి అవయవాలు కలిగి ఉన్న వ్యక్తులలో కనిపించే సహజ ప్రక్రియ. ప్రతి నెల, అండాశయాలు ఒక అండం (Ova or egg) అని పిలువబడే ప్రత్యేక బీజ కణాలు ఉత్పత్తి చేస్తాయి.  ఇలా విడుదలైన అండం లైంగిక సంపర్కం సమయంలో శుక్రంతో (sperm) ఫలదీకరణం (fertilize) చెంది గర్భకోశంలో పిండంగా తయారవుతుంది.  

ఆ పిండం గర్భాశయం (గర్భం) యొక్క గోడకు అతుక్కుపోతుంది. గర్భం దాల్చే సమయంలో క్రమంగా కొత్త శిశువుగా ఎదిగి చివరికి కాన్పు/ప్రసవంతో బయటకు వస్తుంది.  అందుకే, ప్రతి నెల, అండం విడుదల అయ్యే ముందు బిడ్డసంచిలో ఫలదీకరణం చెందిన అండం అభివృద్ధి చెందడానికి అనువైన ప్రదేశంగా తయారవుతుంది.  ఇందుకోసం గర్భాశయం యొక్క గోడ రక్తనాళాలతో నిండి మందంగా తయారవుతుంది.  పిండం గర్భాశయం గోడలకు అతుక్కుని ఉండి జీవించడానికి, పెరగడానికి అవసరమైన పోషణను అందుకుంటుంది. అండం శుక్రంతో ఫలదీకరణం చెందకపోతే అంటే గర్భధారణ జరగని పరిస్థితుల్లో అది స్రావమైపోతుంది. గర్భాశయం లోని గోడలని కప్పుతూ ఉండే మృదువైన ఎండోమెట్రియమ్ (Endometrium) అనే లోపలి పొర పీరియడ్ బ్లడ్ రూపంలో ఒక నిర్ధిష్టమైన కాల వ్యవధిలో విసర్జించబడి, తిరిగి కొత్తగా తయారు అవుతుంది. ఈ విధంగా విసర్జించబడిన స్రావాల్ని ఋతుస్రావం, బహిష్టు, నెలసరి అంటారు. 

సాధారణంగా డిశ్చార్జి లేదా బహిష్టు, రక్తం, రక్తపు గడ్డలు, గర్భాశయ గోడ నుండి స్రవించే కణజాలం, నీరు, శ్లేష్మం మరియు బ్యాక్టీరియాను కలిగి ఉంటుంది. సాధారణంగా రక్తంలో ఐరన్, కాపర్ ఉండటం, అలాగే, ఆరోగ్యకరమైన యోనిలో నివసించే బ్యాక్టీరియా ఉండటం వల్ల పీరియడ్ బ్లడ్ వాసన వస్తుంది.

ആർത്തവചക്ര പരമ്പര – ഭാഗം 1 – ജീവശാസ്ത്രം

സ്ത്രീകളുടെ പ്രത്യുത്പാദന വ്യവസ്ഥയുടെ ഭാഗമായി കണക്കാക്കപ്പെടുന്ന അവയവങ്ങളിലെ എല്ലാ ചാക്രിക ജൈവ മാറ്റങ്ങളും ആർത്തവ ചക്രത്തിൽ ഉൾപ്പെടുന്നു. അണ്ഡാശയം, ഗർഭാശയം, ഗര്‍ഭാശയമുഖം, യോനി എന്നിവ പോലുള്ള സ്ത്രീകളുടെ പ്രത്യുത്പാദന ഘടനയുള്ളവരിൽ ഇത് ഒരു സ്വാഭാവിക പ്രതിഭാസമാണ്. എല്ലാ മാസവും, അണ്ഡാശയങ്ങൾ പ്രത്യുൽപാദന ഘടകങ്ങളായി പ്രവർത്തിക്കുന്ന പ്രത്യേക കോശങ്ങൾ ഉത്പാദിപ്പിക്കുന്നു. ഇതിനെ മുട്ട അഥവാ അണ്ഡം എന്ന് വിളിക്കുന്നു. അണ്ഡത്തിന് ലൈംഗിക ബന്ധത്തിൽ യോനീനാളത്തിലൂടെ പ്രവേശിക്കുന്ന ബീജങ്ങളുമായി സംയോജിപ്പിക്കാൻ കഴിയും.

ഒരു അണ്ഡവും ബീജവും സംയോജിച്ചാൽ, അവ ഒരൊറ്റ കോശമായി മാറും. പിന്നീട്‌ ഈ കോശം ഒരു ഭ്രൂണമായി മാറി ഗർഭാശയ ഭിത്തിയിൽ പറ്റിനിൽക്കും. ക്രമേണ ഭ്രൂണം ഗർഭകാലത്തുടനീളം ഒരു പുതിയ വ്യക്തിയായി വളർന്ന് ഒടുവിൽ ജനനത്തിനു തയ്യാറാകുന്നു. അതുകൊണ്ടാണ്, എല്ലാ മാസവും, ഒരു അണ്ഡ-ബീജ സംയോജനം പ്രതീക്ഷിച്ച്, അടുത്ത ഒമ്പത് മാസത്തേക്ക് ഭ്രൂണത്തിന് ഒരു പുതിയ മനുഷ്യനായി വികസിക്കാൻ അനുയോജ്യമാവാൻ ഗർഭപാത്രം സ്വയം തയ്യാറെടുക്കുന്നത്. ഭ്രൂണത്തെ ഗർഭപാത്രത്തിന്റെ ഭിത്തിയുമായി ബന്ധിപ്പിക്കുന്നതിനും, അതിജീവിക്കുന്നതിനും വളരുന്നതിനുമുള്ള പോഷണം സ്വീകരിക്കുന്നതിനും, വേണ്ടി ഗർഭപാത്രത്തിന്റെ ഭിത്തി കട്ടിയുള്ളതും രക്തക്കുഴലുകളാൽ നിറഞ്ഞതും ആയി മാറുന്നു. അണ്ഡ-ബീജ സംയോജനം സംഭവിക്കാത്തപ്പോൾ, ഗർഭാശയത്തിന്റെ ഭിത്തിയിലെ തടിപ്പ്‌ ശരീരത്തിൽ നിന്ന് ആർത്തവം അല്ലെങ്കിൽ ആർത്തവ രക്തത്തിന്റെ രൂപത്തിൽ വിസര്‍ജ്ജിക്കപെടും.

അതിനാൽ, ആർത്തവ രക്തത്തിൽ സാധാരണയായി ധാരാളം രക്തവും, കുറച്ച് കട്ട പിടിച്ച രക്തവും, ഗർഭാശയ ഭിത്തിയിൽ നിന്ന് പുറന്തള്ളുന്ന സംയുക്തകോശങ്ങളും, യോനിയിലെയും ഗര്‍ഭാശയമുഖത്തിലെയും കോശങ്ങളിൽ നിന്നുള്ള വെള്ളം, അയോണുകൾ, കഫം, ബാക്ടീരിയ എന്നിവ അടങ്ങിയ സ്രവങ്ങളും അടങ്ങിയിരിക്കുന്നു. ഇരുമ്പ്, ചെമ്പ്, തുടങ്ങിയ എല്ലാ ലോഹ അയോണുകളുടെയും ആരോഗ്യകരമായ യോനിയിൽ വസിക്കുന്ന ബാക്ടീരിയുടെയും സാന്നിധ്യമാണ് ആർത്തവ രക്തത്തിന്റെ ഗന്ധത്തിന് കാരണം.

ಹೆಣ್ಣುಮಕ್ಕಳ ಮುಟ್ಟಿನ ಚಕ್ರ ಸರಣಿ – ಭಾಗ 1 – ಜೀವ ವಿಜ್ಞಾನ

ಹೆಣ್ಣುಮಕ್ಕಳ ದೇಹದ ಸಂತಾನೋತ್ಪತ್ತಿ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆಯ (ಮಕ್ಕಳ ಹೆರುವ ಏರ್ಪಾಟು) ಭಾಗವಾಗಿರುವ ಅಂಗಗಳಲ್ಲಿ, ಪದೇಪದೇ ನಡೆಯುವ ಎಲ್ಲ ಜೈವಿಕ ಬದಲಾವಣೆಗಳು ಮುಟ್ಟಿನಚಕ್ರದಲ್ಲಿ ಸೇರುತ್ತವೆ. ಇದು ಅಂಡಾಶಯ (ತತ್ತಿಚೀಲ), ಗರ್ಭಾಶಯ (ಬಸಿರುಚೀಲ), ಬಸಿರು ಕಂಠ ಮತ್ತು ಯೋನಿಯಂತಹ ಸಂತಾನೋತ್ಪತ್ತಿ ಮಾಡುವ (ಹೆರುವ) ಅಂಗಗಳನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿರುವವರಲ್ಲಿ ಸಹಜವಾಗಿ ಕಂಡುಬರುತ್ತದೆ. ಪ್ರತಿ ತಿಂಗಳು, ತತ್ತಿಚೀಲವು ಹೊಸಜೀವವೊಂದನ್ನು ಹುಟ್ಟಿಸಬಲ್ಲ ಅಂಡಾಣು ಅಥವಾ ತತ್ತಿಗಳೆಂಬ ಕೋಶಗಳನ್ನು ಉತ್ಪತ್ತಿ ಮಾಡುತ್ತದೆ, ಅವು ಗಂಡು ಹೆಣ್ಣು ಕೂಡಿಕೆಯ ಸಮಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಹೆಣ್ಣಿನ ಜನನಾಂಗದ ನಾಳದ ಮೂಲಕ ಒಳಬರುವ ಗಂಡುಬಿತ್ತುಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ (ವೀರ್ಯ) ಬೆಸೆಕರಗುತ್ತವೆ.     

ಒಂದು ವೇಳೆ ತತ್ತಿಯು ಗಂಡುಬಿತ್ತಿನೊಡನೆ (ವೀರ್ಯ) ಬೆಸೆಕರಗಿದರೆ, ಅದು ಬಸಿರು ಎಂಬ ಒಂದೇ ಕೋಶವಾಗಿ, ಬಸಿರುಚೀಲದ ಗೋಡೆಗೆ ಅಂಟಿಕೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತದೆ (ಬಸಿರುನಿಲ್ಲುವುದು) ಮತ್ತು ಬಸಿರು ಬಲಿಯುವ ಕಾಲದಲ್ಲಿ ಹಂತಹಂತವಾಗಿ ಒಂದು ಹೊಸ ಜೀವವಾಗಿ ಬೆಳೆಯುತ್ತದೆ, ಕೊನೆಗೆ ಮಗುವಾಗಿ ಹುಟ್ಟುತ್ತದೆ. ಆದ್ದರಿಂದಲೇ, ಪ್ರತೀ ತಿಂಗಳು, ತತ್ತಿ- ಗಂಡುಬಿತ್ತು ಬೆಸೆಕರಗುವುದನ್ನು ಎದುರುನೋಡುತ್ತಾ, ಮುಂದಿನ ಒಂಬತ್ತು ತಿಂಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಬಸಿರನ್ನು ಒಂದು ಹೊಸ ಮಾನವ ಜೀವಿಯಾಗಿ ಬೆಳೆಸಲು ಅನುಕೂಲವಾದ ಜಾಗವನ್ನಾಗಿ ಬಸಿರುಚೀಲವು ತನ್ನನ್ನು ತಾನು ಅಣಿಗೊಳಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತದೆ. ಗೋಡೆಗೆ ಬಸಿರು ಅಂಟಿಕೊಂಡು ಆರಯ್ಕೆ ಪಡೆದು, ಬದುಕಿ ಬೆಳೆಯಲು ಅನುವಾಗುವಂತೆ ಬಸಿರುಚೀಲದ ಗೋಡೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ರಕ್ತನಾಳಗಳು ಬೆಳೆದು ತುಂಬಿ ಹರಡಿ ಗೋಡೆ ಮಂದವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಯಾವಾಗ ತತ್ತಿ- ಗಂಡುಬಿತ್ತಿನ ಬೆಸೆಕರಗುವಿಕೆ ಆಗುವುದಿಲ್ಲವೋ, ಬಸಿರುಚೀಲದ ಗೋಡೆಯ ಮೇಲಿನ ಮಂದದ್ರವವನ್ನು ಮೈಯು ಮುಟ್ಟಿನ ರಕ್ತದ ರೂಪದಲ್ಲಿ ಹೊರಹಾಕುತ್ತದೆ.

ಹಾಗಾಗಿ ಮುಟ್ಟಿನ ರಕ್ತದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಹೇರಳ ಪ್ರಮಾಣದ ರಕ್ತ, ಕೆಲವು ರಕ್ತದ ಗಂಟುಗಳು, ಬಸಿರುಚೀಲದ ಗೋಡೆಯಿಂದ ಕಿತ್ತುಬಂದ ಒಳಮೈ, ಮತ್ತು ಯೋನಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬಸಿರುಕಂಠದ ಕೋಶಗಳಿಂದ ಬಂದ ನೀರು, ಆಯಾನುಗಳು, ಲೋಳೆ ಮತ್ತು ಬ್ಯಾಕ್ಟೀರಿಯಾಗಳನ್ನೊಳಗೊಂಡ ರಸವನ್ನು ಒಳಗೊಂಡಿರುತ್ತದೆ. ಜೊತೆಗೆ ಈ ಕಬ್ಬಿಣ, ತಾಮ್ರದಂತಹ ಲೋಹಗಳ ಆಯಾನುಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಆರೋಗ್ಯವಂತ ಯೋನಿಯಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಬ್ಯಾಕ್ಟೀರಿಯಾಗಳು ಇರುವುದರಿಂದ ಮುಟ್ಟಿನ ರಕ್ತಕ್ಕೆ ಒಂದು ರೀತಿಯ ವಾಸನೆ ಇರುತ್ತದೆ.

માસિક ચક્ર શ્રેણી – ભાગ – 1 જીવવિજ્ઞાન 

માસિક ચક્ર એટલે સ્ત્રી પ્રજનન પ્રણાલીમાં થતા તમામ ‘ચક્રીય જૈવિક ફેરફારો’. અંડાશય, ગર્ભાશય, સર્વિક્સ અને યોનિ જેવા સ્ત્રી પ્રજનનઅંગો ધરાવતા લોકોમાં માસિક ચક્ર કુદરતી છે. અંડાશય દર મહિને, પ્રજનન એકમો તરીકે વિશેષ કોષો ઉત્પન્ન કરે છે જેને ઇંડા અથવા ઓવા કહેવાય છે. જાતીય સંભોગ દરમિયાન સ્ત્રી પ્રજનન માર્ગમાં પ્રવેશતા શુક્રાણુઓ સાથે આ ઇંડા ભળી શકે છે.

જો ઇંડા અને શુક્રાણુ જોડાઇને ગર્ભ બને ત્યારે ગર્ભાશયની દિવાલને વળગી રહેશે અને ધીમે ધીમે ગર્ભાવસ્થા દરમિયાન વૃદ્ધિ પામી, એક વ્યક્તિ તરીકે જન્મશે. તેથી જ, દર મહિને, ઇંડા-શુક્રાણુ ભળવાની અપેક્ષાએ, ગર્ભાશય પોતાને એક યોગ્ય સ્થળ બનવા માટે તૈયાર કરે છે જ્યાં ગર્ભ આગામી નવ મહિના સુધી નવા મનુષ્ય તરીકે વિકાસ કરી શકે. ગર્ભાશયની દીવાલ જાડી અને રક્તવાહિનીઓથી ભરેલી બને છે જેથી ગર્ભ તેની સાથે જોડાઈ શકે અને જીવિત રહેવા અને વધવા માટે પોષણ મેળવે. જ્યારે ઇંડા-શુક્રાણુનુ મિલન  થતું નથી, ત્યારે શરીર માસિક લોહીના રૂપમાં ગર્ભાશયની દિવાલ પરના જાડાપણાથી છુટકારો મેળવે છે.

આમ, માસિક લોહીમાં સામાન્ય રીતે પુષ્કળ પ્રમાણમાં લોહી, થોડા લોહીના ગાંઠા, ગર્ભાશયની દિવાલમાંથી નીકળતી પેશીઓ અને યોનિ અને સર્વિક્સના કોષોમાંથી થતા સ્ત્રાવ કે જેમાં પાણી, આયનો, મ્યુકસ અને બેક્ટેરિયા હોય છે. સ્વસ્થ યોનિમાર્ગમાં પણ માસિક લોહીની ગંધ એ લોખંડ, તાબાં જેવા ધાતુના આયનો અને બેક્ટેરિયાની હાજરીને આભારી છે.

মাসিক চক্র ধারাবাহিক – প্রথমভাগ- জীববিদ্যা

মাসিকচক্র চলাকালীন স্ত্রী জননতন্ত্রের প্রতিটি অঙ্গের চক্রাকার জৈবিক পরিবর্তন ঘটে। বিভিন্ন স্ত্রী জনন অঙ্গ যেমন ডিম্বাশয়(Ovary), জরায়ু(Uterus), সার্ভিক্স, যোনি(Vagina) সম্পন্ন স্ত্রী দেহে মাসিক চক্র একটি স্বাভাবিক ঘটনা। প্রতি মাসে ডিম্বাশয় একটি করে বিশেষ কোষ তৈরী করে যা জনন একক হিসেবে কাজ করে। এই একক হল ডিম্বাণু বা ওভাম যা যৌন মিলনের সময় প্রজনন নালীর মধ্যে ঢুকে পড়া শুক্রাণুর সাথে যুক্ত হয়।

গর্ভাবস্থাকালে, একটি ডিম্বাণু(Egg) ও একটি শুক্রাণু(Sperm) যুক্ত হয়ে তৈরী করে একটি কোষ, যা থেকে তৈরী হয় ভ্রূণ, ভ্রূণ আটকে থাকে জরায়ুর দেওয়ালে এবং ক্রমশ রূপান্তরিত হয় পূর্ণাঙ্গ মানবশরীরে যা শেষপর্যন্ত জন্ম নেয়। তাই প্রতিমাসে, ডিম্বাণু ও শুক্রাণু মিলিত না হলে জরায়ু তার অনুকূল পরিবেশ তৈরী করে যা পরবর্তীকালে নয় মাসের মধ্যে ভ্রূণের একটি নতুন মানবশরীর রূপায়ণের ক্ষেত্র প্রস্তুত করে। ভ্রূণের বেঁচে থাকা ও বড় হওয়ার পুষ্টির জন্য এবং ভ্রূণকে জরায়ুর দেওয়ালে আটকে রাখার জন্য জরায়ুর দেওয়াল ক্রমশ পুরু ও রক্তজালিকাপূর্ণ হয়ে ওঠে।ডিম্বাণু ও শুক্রাণু মিলিত না হলে জরায়ুর দেওয়ালের পুরুত্ব মাসিকচক্রের রক্তের আকারে শরীর নিঃসৃত করে।

মাসিকের রক্তের গঠনগত উপাদানগুলির মধ্যে পড়ে প্রচুর পরিমাণ রক্তকণিকা, কিছু সংখ্যক রক্তপিন্ড, জরায়ুর দেওয়ালে যুক্ত কলা এবং যোনিকোষ ও সার্ভিক্স নিঃসৃত তরল যা মূলত জল, আয়ন, মিউকাস(একপ্রকার পিচ্ছিল তরল) ও ব্যাকটেরিয়া নিয়ে তৈরী। রক্তের ধাতব আয়ন যেমন লোহা, তামা ও একটি স্বাস্থ্যকর যোনিতে উপস্থিত ব্যাকটেরিয়া মাসিকচক্র নিঃসৃত রক্তের বিশেষ গন্ধের কারণ।

The Menstrual Cycle Series – Biology

The menstrual cycle includes all the cyclical biological changes that happen in organs considered to be part of the female reproductive system. It is a natural phenomenon seen in people having female reproductive structures like the ovaries, the uterus, the cervix, and the vagina.  Every month, the ovaries produce special cells acting as reproductive units called eggs or ova that can fuse with sperms entering inside the female reproductive tract during sexual intercourse. 

Parts of the female reproductive system

If an egg and a sperm fuse, they will form a single cell that will become the embryo, stick to the wall of the uterus(womb) and gradually grow into a new individual over the course of the pregnancy, eventually becoming for birth. That is why, every month, in anticipation of the event of an egg-sperm fusion, the uterus prepares itself to become a suitable place where the embryo can develop into a new human being for the next nine months. The wall of the uterus becomes thick and full of blood vessels for the embryo to bind to it and receive nourishment to survive and grow. When the egg- sperm fusion does not occur, the body gets rid of the thickenings on the wall of the uterus in the form of menstrual or period blood. 

Illustration of the menstrual cycle

Thus, period blood usually contains copious amounts of blood, a few blood clots, tissues shed from the uterus wall, and secretions from the cells of the vagina and cervix that consist of water, ions, mucous, and bacteria. The smell of period blood is due to the presence of all the metal ions like iron, copper, and the bacteria that live in a healthy vagina.

Gauri Lankesh – The one who bled fire

Source: Wikimedia Commons

In 2020, Reporters Without Borders assessed the world press freedom index, and out of 180 countries, India was at the 142nd position. That raises a red flag not just on the state of journalism in the country but also on the state of our democracy as a whole. A large section of the Indian media have given in to regressive, majoritarian ideals that often promotes unscientific ideas, discourages rational thinking and questioning the ones in power . However there are independent journalists, rationalists and free- thinking citizens who are fighting against this rising tide of ultra- nationalist and unquestioning journalism .

One such journalist who questioned the dominance of bigoted, ultra-nationalist and autocratic right wing ideals in the media was Gauri Lankesh. Born and brought up in Karnataka, she would have turned 60 this 29th had she not been shot dead by assailants on 5th September, 2017. Gauri Lankesh had been a forerunner of rationalism and sound judgment which in many cases have triggered the ones in power to censure her work. Several defamation suits had been filed against her by the reactionary, and ultra-conservative faction of the country.

“I’ll do what I can and I’ll say what I should. These intolerant voices find strength on our silence. Let them learn to argue with words instead of threats. – Gauri Lankesh”

Gauri Lankesh started her career as a journalist with The Times of India, and after 16 years ended up running her own Kannada weekly called Gauri Lankesh Patrike. She was a staunch critic of right-wing politics, supported student leaders fighting for human rights and raised her voice repeatedly against Brahmanical patriarchy and the historical injustices done to the people from oppressed castes in this country. She was also celebrated among rationalists. 

But the assassination of Gauri Lankesh dawned as yet another example of the power imbalance between the different sections of our society. It has not been the first. Free thinkers like Narendra Dabholkar, M.M. Kalburgi, and Govind Pansare had been assassinated for similar reasons. So much hatred has been spewing across the nations that thumps its chest of freedom of speech as a constitutional right. Hope still remains as with every revulsion, there is revolution.

May 20: International Day of Clinical Trials

During the past year, as scientists in different parts of the world began developing vaccines against the Covid 19 virus, we have gradually become familiar with the idea of clinical trials and their importance in our lives. Every time a new drug, a new vaccine, a new medical device or a new treatment procedure is developed, there is a trial run done to make sure that they are safe for use in humans and are sufficiently efficient to treat a specific health condition. The trial run and all the steps involved in it is a clinical trial. 

Clinical trials are done in 3 phases. In Phase 1, the researchers administer the drug to participants to see whether the drug is safe to use and the highest dose that can be given to humans without any adverse side effects. During Phase 2, researchers administer the safest dose and try to figure out whether the new drug, vaccine or experimental treatment is effective in combating the specific disease that it is designed to treat. For example, a phase 2 trial drug for cancer may successfully lead to the shrinking of solid tumours in participating cancer patients. Phase 3 of the trial aims to find out how safe and efficient the new drug or treatment is compared to the current ones that are in use. The participants are divided into 2 groups, one group is administered the new, experimental treatment, the other group is given the treatment already in use or in case none is available, a sugar pill. Neither the doctors nor the patients in this phase of the study know which individual patient receives which type of treatment in this phase. If the new drug, vaccine treatment is found to be safe enough and more beneficial compared to the older ones, the authorities grant approval for its widespread use.

A trial run involves people who are selected on the basis of specific criteria like age, sex, population group, suffering from a disease at present or with a history of a specific illness. The details of the procedure, potential risks and benefits of the new treatment is explained to the participants and consent is taken before proceeding.

Clinical trials are not just needed for a newly prepared drug or treatment. If an already in use drug that was effective in treating a disease in adults is found to treat the same disease in children, new clinical trials need to be done in children before it is approved. Sometimes, there are new discoveries like a drug previously used for treating malaria contains properties that would be helpful for patients suffering from another disease caused by a virus. This old drug with a new purpose then undergoes a trial run to see how well it works against the viral disease.

କୋଭିଡ ସଂକଟର ସମୁଖଭାଗ: ସ୍ମଶାନ ଓ କବରସ୍ଥାନର କର୍ମୀ

ସରକାରୀ ତଥ୍ୟ ଅନୁସାରେ, ଭାରତରେ କୋଭିଡ୧୯ ସଂକ୍ରମଣରେ ଓ ମୌଳିକ ଚିକିତ୍ସାର ସୁବିଧା ଅଭାବରୁ ପ୍ରତିଦିନ ୪୦୦୦ରୁ ଅଧିକ ଲୋକ ମୃତ୍ୟୁବରଣ କରୁଛନ୍ତି। ଶବଦାହ କିମ୍ବା କବର ଦେବାରେ ସହାୟତା କରୁଥିବା ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି ଅଥବା ଧାର୍ମିକ ବା ସାଂସ୍କୃତିକ ପରମ୍ପରା ଅନୁସାରେ ଅନ୍ତିମ ସଂସ୍କାର କରୁଥିବା ବ୍ୟକ୍ତିମାନଙ୍କୁ ସଠିକ ‘ବ୍ୟକ୍ତିଗତ ସୁରକ୍ଷା ଉପକରଣ'(ପି.ପି.ଇ.) ପିନ୍ଧିବାକୁ ନିର୍ଦେଶ ଦିଆଯାଇଛି। ପି.ପି.ଇ.ରେ ଗ୍ଲୋଭସ, ଫେସ-ସିଲ୍ଡ, ଆଖି ପାଇଁ କଳା ଚଷମା, ମେଡିକାଲ ମାସ୍କ ଓ ପୂର୍ଣଭାବେ ଆଚ୍ଛାଦିତ ହୋଇ ରହୁଥିବା ଜୋତା ନିଶ୍ଚୟ ରହିବା ଉଚିତ। ହଇଜା ପରି ରୋଗ ତୁଳନାରେ ଶବ ସତ୍କାର ସମୟରେ କୋଭିଡ୧୯ ସଂକ୍ରମଣର ସମ୍ଭାବନା କମ ଥାଏ । କିନ୍ତୁ ମୃତକଙ୍କ ଶରୀରକୁ ନେବା ସମୟରେ ଜଣେ ବ୍ୟକ୍ତି ମୃତଦେହରୁ ବାହାରିଥିବା ତରଳ ପଦାର୍ଥ ବା ଶ୍ରାବ ସଂସ୍ପର୍ଶରେ ଆସି ସଂକ୍ରମିତ ହୋଇପାରେ। କୋଭିଡରେ ମରିଥିବା ବ୍ୟକ୍ତିଙ୍କର ଫୁସଫୁସ ଓ ଅନ୍ୟ ଅଙ୍ଗରେ ମଧ୍ୟ ଜୀବନ୍ତ ଓ ସଂକ୍ରାମକ ଭୂତାଣୁ ଥାଇପାରନ୍ତି। ମୃତକଙ୍କ ସଂଖ୍ୟା ବଢ଼ୁଥିବା ବେଳେ ସ୍ମଶାନ ଓ କବରସ୍ଥାନର କର୍ମୀମାନେ ଦିନ ରାତି କାମରେ ଲାଗିଛନ୍ତି। ଅଧିକାଂଶ ସମୟରେ ସେମାନଙ୍କ ପାଖରେ କୋଭିଡ ଟୀକା, ପରୀକ୍ଷା କୀଟ, ପି.ପି.ଇ., ଆର୍ଥିକ ସହଯୋଗ, ଖାଦ୍ୟ ଓ ମାନସିକ ସ୍ୱାସ୍ଥ୍ୟସେବା ପହଂଚିପାରେ ନାହିଁ। ସମୁଖଭାଗରେ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟରତ ଏହି ଅଧିକାଂଶ କର୍ମୀ ଐତିହାସିକଭାବେ ପ୍ରାନ୍ତିକ ଓ ପୀଡ଼ିତ ହୋଇଥିବା ସମ୍ପ୍ରଦାୟର ଯେଉଁମାନେକି ବର୍ତ୍ତମାନ ମଧ୍ୟ ଆନୁଷ୍ଠାନିକ ଜାତିଭେଦର ଶୀକାର ହୁଅନ୍ତି। ଏହି ଅପାତକାଳୀନ ସ୍ୱାସ୍ଥ୍ୟ ସଂକଟର ସମୁଖଭାଗରେ କାର୍ଯ୍ୟରତ କର୍ମୀ ଭାବରେ ସେମାନଙ୍କୁ ସମ୍ମାନ ଦେବା ଓ ସେମାନଙ୍କର ଦୁରାବସ୍ଥାକୁ ସୁଧାରିବାର ସମୟ ଆସିଯାଇଛି।

কোভিড সংকটের ফ্রন্টলাইন : শ্মশান ও গোরস্থানের কর্মীবৃন্দ

সরকারি মতে, ভারতে প্রতিদিন কোভিডে আক্রান্ত ৪০০০ এর-ও বেশি মানুষের মৃত্যু হচ্ছে প্রাথমিক স্বাস্থ্য পরিষেবার অভাবে। যাঁরা এই মৃতদের ধার্মিক ও সামাজিক রীতি অনুসারে শেষকৃত্যের দায়িত্বে আছেন, তাঁদের উপযুক্ত ব্যক্তিগত প্রতিরক্ষামূলক উপকরণ বা PPE পরার নির্দেশ দেওয়া হয়েছে। PPE এর মধ্যে দস্তানা, ফেস-শিল্ড, চক্ষু রক্ষার জন্য গগলস, মেডিক্যাল মুখোশ ও আঁটোসাঁটো জুতো থাকা অবশ্যই প্রয়োজন। মৃতদেহ বহন করার মাধ্যমে কোভিড সংক্রমণের সম্ভাবনা কলেরার মতো রোগের তুলনায় কম। কিন্তু মৃতদেহের শারীরিক তরল বা নিঃসরণের সংস্পর্শে এলে, কোভিড সংক্রমণ হতে পারে। কোভিডে মৃতদের ফুসফুস ও অন্যান্য অঙ্গে জীবিত ও সংক্রমণকারী ভাইরাস থাকতে পারে। মৃত্যু সংখ্যা বাড়ার সাথে সাথে, শ্মশান ও গোরস্থানের কর্মীরা দিনরাত এক করে কাজ করে চলেছেন। অধিকাংশ সময়েই তাঁদের কাছে কোভিড ভ্যাকসিন, কোভিড সংক্রমণ পরীক্ষা, উপযুক্ত PPE, আর্থিক সহায়তা, পর্যাপ্ত খাদ্য ও মানসিক স্বাস্থ্য পরিষেবার সুবিধা থাকে না। এই ফ্রন্টলাইন কর্মীদের অনেকেই ঐতিহাসিকভাবে প্রান্তিক ও নিপীড়িত সম্প্রদায়ের সদস্য, যাঁরা আজও প্রাতিষ্ঠানিক জাতভেদের শিকার। আজ এই স্বাস্থ্য সংকটের সময় আমাদের উচিত এই মানুষগুলির ফ্রন্টলাইনে কাজের স্বীকৃতি দেওয়া এবং তাঁদের অবস্থার উন্নতিতে প্রচেষ্ট হওয়া।